Puranaanooru – 192
Every town’s our home town; every man, our kinsman;
Good and evil happen not because of others;
Pain and relief happen on their own;
Dying isn’t something unknown;
Neither do we rejoice that life is a joy,
Nor in disgust, do we call it a misery;
Since we know from words of wise men
‘Our precious lives follow their destined course,
Like rafts following the course of a mighty river
Clattering over rocks after a downpour
from lightning slashed skies’,
We aren’t impressed by the mighty;
Even more, we don’t scorn the lowly too.
யாதும் ஊரே; யாவரும் கேளிர்;
தீதும் நன்றும் பிறர் தர வாரா;
நோதலும் தணிதலும் அவற்றோரன்ன;
சாதலும் புதுவது அன்றே; வாழ்தல்
இனிது என மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலமே; முனிவின்,
இன்னாது என்றலும் இலமே; ‘மின்னொடு
வானம் தண் துளி தலை இ, ஆனாது
கல் பொருது இரங்கும் மல்லல் பேர் யாற்று
நீர் வழிப்படூஉம் புணை போல், ஆர் உயிர்
முறை வழிப்படூஉம்’ என்பது திறவோர்
காட்சியின் தெளிந்தனம் ஆகலின், மாட்சியின்
பெரியோரை வியத்தலும் இலமே;
சிறியோரை இகழ்தல் அதனினும் இலமே.
This poem by Kanian Poonkundranar (Astrologer from Poonkundram) is one of the most famous poems of Sangam Literature. He lived in the village of Mahibalanpatti (in Sivaganga district today). He was a wise man, but never wrote in praise of kings or benefactors as was the practice then. When he was asked why he didn’t do so, this poem was his answer. You can either read this poem as surrendering to the inevitability of life or as a proclamation of independence from man made boundaries. This poem is that of a global citizen, who doesn’t reduce himself to an identity.
There are no boundaries for humans. Every town that we go is our home town. Every person we interact with is our kin (like Vasudhaiva Kutumbakam, whole world is one family). Good and evil in our lives occurs not because of others, they come by themselves. (This can also be read as Good and evil are inherent in us, and not dependent on external factors). Pain and its relief happen on their own. Dying isn’t something new, it has been happening since ages. So we do not rejoice that life is blissful. At the same time we aren’t bitter about life being a misery. Wise men have already written down that our lives, though precious to us, follow their predetermined course. Just like rafts following the course of a great river that flows noisily over rocks after a downpour from the skies. Life happens on its own with hardly any control by the individual. So we do not wonder at those who are superior to us. Neither do we scorn those who are inferior to us.
It is with trepidation that I set out to translate this poem. AK Ramanujan’s translation of this poem is well known and well received. I have borrowed heavily from him. However I differ from AKR on the following points.
1. ‘Rafts drifting in the rapids of a great river’ is good imagery. However the original poem says rafts following the course of the river, not drifting. A friend pointed out that rafts don’t drift in rapids but are hurtled forward. Literal meaning of those lines in the original is ‘Rain drops from lightning streaked skies fall down and gush over the rocks noisily and flow as a mighty river. Like a raft following the course of the river, our precious lives too follow a predetermined course’. Here the river is equated to fate and our lives to rafts. So rafts follow the course of the river, they do not drift.
2. He translates திறவோர் காட்சி as ‘vision of men who see’. The commentaries by U.Ve.Saa. and Avvai Duraisami Pillai interpret it as “நன்மைக் கூறுபாடு அறிவோர் கூறிய நூல்” literally “books of those who know good and evil”. I have decided to go by their commentaries.
3. For the word முனிவின் he uses ‘anger’. U.Ve.Saa. interprets it as வெறுப்பு – loathing. So I have followed U.Ve.Saa.’s commentary and used disgust.
4. He skips the word அதனினும் – ‘more than that’ in the last line. That is crucial to this line. “We do not look at the mighty people with wonder. More importantly, we do not scorn those who are lower than us”.
Beatifully translated. Wonderfully explained… Thank you, as always…
What does “Elame” mean? (For example in the line: வாழ்தல்
இனிது என மகிழ்ந்தன்றும் இலமே
இலம் as in நாம் (அப்படிப் பாடுவது) இல்லை
Thanks Chenthil. This lightened up my day.
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மாட்சியின் பெரியோர், சிறியோர்… imo is to mean, those seen glorified vs non glorified, not necessarily superior. His very point is rejecting sense of superiority or inferiority.
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Was looking at this recently and was wondering how we could tighten the translation to the original structure? Tried to edit your brilliant translation a bit to do so:
Everywhere is the hometown, everyone kin;
good and evil happen because of others not;
pain and relief happen by their own;
dying is an unknown not;
neither do we rejoice that life is joyous;
nor in disgust, do we declare it a misery;
for the wise have seen and written:
Like rafts clattering over the rocks
on the course of the mighty river
after a downpour from lightning-slashed skies,
precious life too follows its course.
Neither are we impressed by the glorious;
more importantly, nor do we scorn at the lowly.
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