Old Tamil Poetry

Translations of Tamil Poetic works that span 2000 years

Archive for the category “Epics”

Kambaramayanam – 70

கூற்றம் இல்லை, ஓர் குற்றம் இல்லமையால்;
சீற்றம் இல்லை, தம் சிந்தையின் செம்மையால்;
ஆற்றல் நல் அறம் அல்லது இல்லாமையால்,
ஏற்றம் அல்லது, இழித்தகவு இல்லையே.

Death is absent, as crime is absent;
anger is absent, due to virtuous thought;
they act righteously and not otherwise,
so they achieve eminence, not baseness.

Since there is no crime in Kosala, there is no unnatural death. Anger is absent since the citizens have only virtuous thoughts.  Due to fairness of their actions, the citizens of Kosala achieve superiority in their lives, they are never base.

கூற்றம் – death
சீற்றம் – anger
சிந்தை – thoughts
செம்மை – goodness
ஆற்றல் – do
நல் அறம் – righteous deed
இழித்தகவு – baseness

Kambaramayanam – 10171-10173

Whole world hails my chastity;
Even Brahma can’t derail my conviction;
Yet, if the omniscient Lord doesn’t believe me,
Is there any other God who can convince him otherwise?

Lotus seated Lord, One who herds the bull,
Lord of justice with a conch in his hand-
this trinity sees everything like gooseberry on a palm,
yet, are they capable of fathoming women’s mind?

“So, for whom else should I 
prove my blemish less chastity?
It’s better to give up my life; It’s your command my lord, 
I deserve it; that’s my fate too” said she.

பார்க்கு எலாம் பத்தினி; பதுமத்தானுக்கும் 
பேர்க்கல் ஆம் சிந்தையள் அல்லள், பேதையேன்; 
ஆர்க்கு எலாம் கண்ணவன், ”அன்று” என்றால், அது 
தீர்க்கல் ஆம் தகையது தெய்வம் தேறுமோ?

பங்கயத்து ஒருவனும், விடையின் பாகனும்,
சங்குகைத் தாங்கிய தரும மூர்த்தியும்
அங்கையின் நெல்லிபோல் அனைத்தும் நோக்கினும்,
மங்கையர் மனநிலை உணர வல்லரோ?

ஆதலின் புறத்து இனி யாருக்காக என்
கோது அறுதவத்தினைக் கூறிக் காட்டுகேன்?
சாதலின் சிறந்தது ஒன்று இல்லை; தக்கதே
வேத! நின்பணி; அதுவிதியும் ‘என்றனள்.

This set of three verses are Sita bemoaning her fate when Rama accuses her of not following the Dharma and giving up her life when kidnapped by Ravana. The war is over, Ravana has bee slain; Hanuman and Vibishana go to Ashoka Vanam to bring Sita to see Rama. She is overwhelmed by joy and comes to see Rama. At this point Rama accuses her and doubts her chastity. All her joy becomes a mirage and she is grief stricken.

She says, “The whole world hails my chastity. Even the God of Creation, Brahma (who is seated on a lotus) won’t be able to change my conviction to stick to the righteous path. But what’s the use? You, who can see everything in this world say ‘No’, is there any other God I can turn to to convince you otherwise?

The Lotus seated Lord (Brahma, the creator), Lord who herds the bull (Shiva, the destroyer), Lord of Justice (Vishnu) who carries a conch in his hand – these three are all seeing. They see everything crystal clear like a gooseberry held in a palm. Yet can they understand what is inside a women’s heart?

To whom else should I prove my chastity? What is the use? It is better for me to give up my life as per your command, my Lord; I am fated to do so, and I deserve it too”. After this she walks into the fire and the power of her chastity burns the Lord of Fire himself and he comes out and proclaims her as pure.

பதுமத்தான் – பத்மத்தில் (தாமரையில் ) அமர்ந்தவன் – Brahma
பங்கயம் – பங்கஜம் – Lotus விடை – Bull
அங்கையின் நெல்லி – gooseberry on a palm (crystal clear)
கோது – fault

Silappathikaaram – Oor Soozh Vari: 53-58

Are there wise men here? Are there wise men here?
Are there wise men here? Are there wise men here
who nurture and care for others’ child?
Is there a God? Is there a God?
In this *town whose King unjustly killed (my husband)
Is there a God? Is there a God?

*Madurai

சான்றோரும் உண்டுகொல்? சான்றோரும் உண்டுகொல்?
ஈன்ற குழவி எடுத்து வளர்க்குறூஉம்
சான்றோரும் உண்டுகொல்? சான்றோரும் உண்டுகொல்?
தெய்வமும் உண்டுகொல்? தெய்வமும் உண்டுகொல்?
வை வாளின் தப்பிய மன்னவன் கூடலில்
தெய்வமும் உண்டுகொல்? தெய்வமும் உண்டுகொல்?’

This is the searing accusation of Kannaki on seeing her husband Kovalan’s body. Kovalan was wrongly accused of stealing the Queen’s anklet and was ordered to be killed by the Pandiya King without an enquiry. Kannaki learns of this and comes and laments over her husband’s dead body and curses the town. She asks “What sort of town is this? Are there wise men here who take care of even others’ children? In this high storeyed town (Madurai), whose King unjustly ordered my husband to be killed is there a God?”

After this she goes to the King’s court and proves with her other anklet that her husband was innocent. When the King learns that he has made a mistake, he dies instantly. Kannaki’s anger does not abate yet. She curses Madurai to be burnt down and Madurai burns.

சான்றோர் – Wise men
ஈன்ற குழவி – Birthed Child – Child born to others
கை வாளின் தப்பிய – cut with sword
கூடல் – நான்மாடக் கூடல் – Town with four towers – Madurai

Kambaramayanam – 9370

When day by day like a waxing moon you grew,
I undertook an austere vow 
to see Indra defeated by the bow you drew;
What vow did I undertake now 
to see your beheaded body, what did I do!
Will I, an abject soul, still desire this impermanent life?

கலையினால் திங்கள் என்ன   
    வளர்கின்ற காலத்தே உன்,
சிலையினால் அரியை வெல்லக்   
    காண்பதோர் தவம்முன் செய்தேன்;
தலை இலா ஆக்கை காண   
    எத் தவம் செய்தேன்! அந்தோ!
‘நிலை இலா வாழ்வை இன்னும்   
    நினைவெனோ, நினைவு இலாதேன்?

Indrajit (one who defeated Indra) has been defeated in the battle with Rama and beheaded. A grief stricken Ravana goes to the battlefield and brings his son’s headless body back. On seeing Indrajit’s body, his mother Mandodari laments and castigates herself in pity. This is one of the verses in that chapter.

“When you were growing up as an young man like a growing moon, I prayed to God to see you defeat Indra and undertook austere vows. What austere vow did I undertake to see your headless body, my son? Should I, a thoughtless woman and an abject soul, still desire to live this impermanent life. Won’t it be better if I die now”

The last line ‘நிலை இலா வாழ்வை இன்னும்  நினைவெனோ’  – ‘Will I still desire this impermanent life’ is a perfect example of alliteration and meaning coming together in Kamban’s poetry.

கலை – with skills
திங்கள் – moon
சிலை – bow
அரி – Indra
ஆக்கை – யாக்கை – body

Kambaramayanam – 1103

Is it anything new to discard 
golden jewels and dresses worn externally?
A bright foreheaded woman discarded
modesty residing in her heart too;-
Like an ascetic who undertakes
severe forms of renunciation,
to forego one’s self

is a characteristic of passion too.

பொன் அருங் கலனும், தூசும்,
     புறத்து உள துறத்தல் வம்போ?
நல் நுதல் ஒருத்தி. தன்பால்
    அகத்து உள நாணும். நீத்தாள்;-
உன்ன அருந் துறவு பூண்ட
    உணர்வுடை ஒருவனேபோல்.
தன்னையும் துறக்கும் தன்மை
     காமத்தே தங்கிற்று அன்றே.


This poem is in the Revelry chapter (உண்டாட்டுப் படலம்) recording  revelries of women accompanying Dasaratha to Mithila. Kamban says “To give up external adornments like jewels and dress is nothing new. Anybody can do it. But this woman gives up modesty that resides in her heart and hankers after her man. Like ascetics who give up their self and undertake severe forms of renunciation, love makes these women discard their self and forget their reserve.”

Kambaramayanam – 1053

Celestials from skies and nymphs from magical realms
cannot match the form of these mortal women;
when these women, whose eyes outdoes the doe’s,
partook toddy in their mouth,
it was like honey flowing into a honeyed flower.

 மீனுடைய விசும்பினார். விஞ்சை நாட்டவர்
ஊனுடை உடம்பினார் உருவம் ஒப்பு இலார்மா
மானுடை நோக்கினார் வாயின் மாந்தினார்-
தேனுடைய மலரிடைத் தேன் பெய்தென்னவே.

Kamban praises the women of Kosala accompanying Dasaratha as they go to Rama’s wedding. This chapter of revelry (உண்டாட்டுப் படலம்) has verses about women drinking toddy and losing their reserve.

In this verse, he says even the celestials or nymphs or no match to the shape and form of these mortal women. These doe eyed women’s mouths are already sweet like honey. Pouring toddy into their mouth was like honey flowing into an already honeyed flower.

மீன் – விண்மீன் – stars
விசும்பு – space
விஞ்சை – magical
ஊன் – flesh / mortal
மாந்துதல் – drink

Kambaramayanam – 2873

“To declare their lust in words of their own,
is not done by women from clans of renown;
but what shall I do, I long for you miserably, 
I’ve no one for me, save me from grief caused by Kama*”, said she.

‘தாம் உறு காமத் தன்மை தாங்களே 
     உரைப்பது என்பது 
ஆம் எனல் ஆவது அன்றால், அருங் குல   
    மகளிர்க்கு அம்மா! 
ஏமுறும் உயிர்க்கு நோவேன்; என் செய்கேன்?   
    யாரும் இல்லேன்;
காமன் என்று ஒருவன் செய்யும் வன்மையைக்
    காத்தி’ என்றாள்.

Surpanakai sees Rama in the forest and falls in love with him. She thinks he might not like the Asura form and changes herself to a human beauty and appears in front of Rama and professes her love for him.

Kambaramayanam – 1109

Kumkumam* dropped down; tresses unraveled;
bangles jangled; clothes slipped off;
anklets rattled up and down clamorously –
as young men partook pleasures of women.

* Kumkumam – Red powder applied as a dot in the forehead

குங்குமம் உதிர்ந்தன; கோதை சோர்ந்தன;
சங்கினம் முரன்றன; கலையும் சாறின;
பொங்கின சிலம்புகள் பூசல் இட்டன;
மங்கையர் இள நலம் மைந்தர் உண்ணவே.

This poem is in Revelry chapter (உண்டாட்டுப் படலம்) in Kamba Ramayanam written in 12th century. These set of poems detail the drunken revelry of women who accompanied Dasaratha as he went to Mithila for the wedding of his son Rama.

Kamban details the dishevelment that happens when a couple makes love. Red mark on her forehead drops off. Braided hair comes unraveled. Her bangles jangled and anklets rattle. Her clothes slip off.

கோதை – Braided hair / tresses
சங்கினம் – சங்கு + இனம் – shell bangles
கலை – clothes

Kambaramayanam – 10181

She leaped into the fire as if reaching for her abode
of lotus that rose above hard-to-swim floods*;
as she leapt in, the fire was burnt to a cinder
like white cotton, by the fieriness of her chastity.

நீந்த அரும் புனலிடை நிவந்த தாமரை
ஏய்ந்த தன் கோயிலே எய்துவாள் எனப்
பாய்ந்தனள்; பாய்தலும் பாலின் பஞ்சு எனத்
தீய்ந்தது அவ் எரி அவள் கற்பின் தீயினால்.

* Legend of Lakshmi – She rose from the milky ocean, seated on a lotus, when it was churned.

Trial by fire is one of the dramatic peaks in Kamba Ramayanam. After Rama has killed Ravana, Sita comes to see him in the battlefield. She is overwhelmed with joy at being rescued by her husband. But Rama chides her and says she should have taken her life when she was kidnapped. He accuses her of enjoying the comforts of Lanka and not killing herself.

Sita is shocked. She says, “I kept myself alive in hopes of seeing you. Now that you yourself doubt me, what is the point of me living. Let me end my life by entering the fire.”

Sita is incarnate of Goddess Lakshmi. Kamban says “She leaps into the fire as if she is reaching her abode of lotus that floats above the immense flood”. One of the legends of Lakshmi is she rose seated on a lotus when the milky ocean was churned. So Sita entering the fire gladly is like she going to her abode of Lotus from where she originally came.The fieriness of her chastity is such that it burns the fire itself to a cinder, like how a white ball of cotton is burnt by fire.

நீந்த அரும் – difficult to swim
புனல் – flood
நிவத்தல் – rise
ஏய்ந்தல் – suitable
கோயில் – abode
பாலின் – like milk (white)

Manimekalai 11.(lines 92-96)

Benefactors to the able are just traders in virtue;
Those who satiate the hunger of the feeble
are who embody virtuous life in this world;
To all those who live in this atom filled world –
One who gives food is one who gives life.

ஆற்றுநர்க்கு அளிப்போர் அறவிலை பகர்வோர்
ஆற்றா மாக்கள் அரும்பசி களைவோர்
மேற்றே உலகின் மெய்ந்நெறி வாழ்க்கை
மண்திணி ஞாலத்து வாழ்வோர்க்கு எல்லாம்
உண்டி கொடுத்தோர் உயிர்கொடுத் தோரே.

Manimekalai is a Buddist epic, generally dated around 5th Century CE. It follows the life of Manimekalai, who is the daughter of Madhavi from Silappathikaram (the premier epic in Tamil literature). She is given the ‘Amudha Surabhi’ (never empty food bowl) which will satiate the hunger of all living beings. While giving her the Amudha Surabhi, the goddess Deeva Thilakai explains to her the virtue of feeding the hungry.

The Goddess says “Those who give to able men who can do something back for them are just traders in virtue. They do virtuous deeds expecting something in return. Those who remove the hunger of the feeble ones embody virtuous life in this world. There are in this atom packed world. In this world one who provides food to the needy is one who gives life to them”. Feeding the hungry was considered the highest form of virtue.

The phrase “உண்டி கொடுத்தோர் உயிர்கொடுத் தோரே” – ‘One who feeds is one who gives life’ is very popular in Tamil Nadu. It is derived from Puranaanooru poem number 18. Similarly the phrase ‘அறவிலை பகர்வோர்’ – ‘traders in virtue’ is from Puranaanooru poem no. 134.

ஆற்றுநர் – those who are able (to do some thing in return)
அறம் – virtue
விலை பகர்வோர் – who tell price (trader)
ஆற்றா – unable / feeble
மாக்கள் – people
மேற்றே – follows
மெய்ந்நெறி – true path (virtuous)
மண் திணி – atom packed
ஞாலம் – world
உண்டி – food

Post Navigation