Old Tamil Poetry

Translations of Tamil Poetic works that span 2000 years

Archive for the tag “Naaladiyaar”

Naaladiyaar – 395

Thinking her eyes to be fish, behind her
went a young kingfisher!
though it followed her ready to fish,
it didn’t do so,
for it got to know
that the bend of her eyebrow
is the curve of a bow.

கண் கயல் என்னும் கருத்தினால், காதலி
பின் சென்றது அம்ம, சிறு சிரல்! பின் சென்றும்,
ஊக்கி எழுந்தும், எறிகல்லா-ஒண் புருவம்
கோட்டிய வில் வாக்கு அறிந்து.

A rare love poem in Naaladiyaar. Of the 400 poems in Naaladiyaar, only the last 10 deal with love. In this poem, he exclaims to his friend about his lover. “Her sparkling eyes are like fish. An young kingfisher followed her to fish her eyes out. Though it got ready to dive, it didn’t do so as it realised that the bend of her eyebrow is the curve of a bow. Since it was afraid the bow might shoot an arrow at it, the kingfisher didn’t dive to pluck her eyes.”

‘Fish like eyes’ is a common simile used in Tamil literature. Something like ‘almond eyes’ in English.

I broke up the structure of the poem to make it rhyme in English. Not a scholarly thing to do, but this account is to make Tamil fun to read.

கயல் – fish

சிரல் – kingfisher

ஊக்கி – to act

ஒண் – ஒண்மை – graceful

கோட்டு – curve, bend

வாக்கு – curve, bend

Naaladiyaar – 112

The noble and ignoble both
never vary from their character! –
Whoever eats it, cane sugar is never bitter;
neem fruit is bitter even if Gods eat it.

தக்காரும் தக்கவ ரல்லாரும் தந்நீர்மை
எக்காலுங் குன்றல் இலராவர் ! – அக்காரம்
யாவரே தின்னினும் கையாதாம் கைக்குமாம்
தேவரே தின்னினும் வேம்பு.

Those who are honorable are always like that and never deviate from their character irrespective of the situation . Same goes with dishonorable people. It’s like sugar and neem. Sugar is never bitter, irrespective of who tastes it. Similarly neem is bitter even if Gods taste it.

தக்கார் – noble
நீர்மை – property / inherent quality
குன்றல் – reduce / diminish
அக்காரம் – cane sugar
கைத்தல் – taste bitter
தேவர் – celestials / God / good people
வேம்பு – neem

Naaladiyaar – 115

Calf of a fine cow will fetch a high price even if young;
Words of the rich will be valued even if they’re ignorant;
Words of poor (scholars) will be skimmed over,
like ploughing insufficiently wet fields.

நல் ஆவின் கன்றுஆயின், நாகும் விலை பெறூஉம்;
கல்லாரே ஆயினும், செல்வர் வாய்ச் சொல் செல்லும்.
புல் ஈரப் போழ்தின் உழவேபோல் மீது ஆடி,
செல்லாவாம், நல்கூர்ந்தார் சொல்.

A calf will fetch a high price if it is of a pedigreed cow. Similarly words of the wealthy are valued highly because of their wealth. Words of poor scholars are heard superficially and have no value. It is like ploughing insufficiently wet paddy fields. Only the top surface is ploughed and the required depth is not achieved.

The original poem only implies scholars. The word used – நல்கூர் – means only ‘poor’. The commentaries expand it to poor scholars. Hence I’ve used it in brackets.

நல் – good / fine
ஆ – cow
நாகு – young
புல் – less quantity
மீது – top surface
நல்கூர்தல் – to be poor

Naaladiyaar – 24

In a dead man’s house, funeral drum is sounded once; 
it’s stopped for a while,  and sounded again; notice that  
before it’s sounded thrice, covering the body,lighting a flame,
the to-be-dead carry away the dead! .

சென்றே எறிப ஒருகால்; சிறு வரை
நின்றே எறிப, பறையினை; நன்றேகாண்,
முக் காலைக் கொட்டினுள், மூடி, தீக் கொண்டு எழுவர்,
செத்தாரைச் சாவார் சுமந்து!

The above Naaladiyaar poem is about impermanence of life (யாக்கை நிலையாமை). In a dead man’s house, funeral drums are sounded once. When it is sounded a second time it indicates to all present that the body is about to be lifted. Before it is sounded the third time, they cover his body, light a funeral torch and carry away the body to the cremation ground. When one is dead, there is not much time left for him even in his house. They take him away quickly. Realize this and do good deeds to make this life worthwhile.

The beauty of the poem is in the last line. Those who carry away the dead too will be dead one day. The poet calls them to-be-dead. “செத்தாரைச் சாவார் சுமந்து – The to-be-dead carry away the dead”. Death is the only constant in this world.

ஒருகால் – once
சிறு வரை – a short time
எறிப – strike
பறை – drum
முக்கால் – third time
கொட்டு – beat
நன்றே காண் – notice carefully ( Tamilvu site commentary interprets this as “Think whether it’s good”)

Naaladiyaar – 285

O’Ruler of hills where clamorous waterfall
washes rock surface! Clan pride will erode;
honour will erode; education too will erode
for those embraced by poverty.

பிறந்த குலம் மாயும்; பேர் ஆண்மை மாயும்;
சிறந்த தம் கல்வியும் மாயும்;-கறங்கு அருவி
கல்மேல் கழூஉம் கண மலை நல் நாட!-
இன்மை தழுவப்பட்டார்க்கு.

The poet advises the ruler about the devastating effort of poverty. A man’s pride, honour and education will be washed away in face of abject poverty. Waterfall washing away the top surface of the rocks can be expanded as a metaphor for relentless poverty washing away the qualities of a man.

Naaladiyaar – 214

Though they live nearby for days together,
one doesn’t warm to those not close to heart;
though they live apart for days together,
does one forego a soul mate’s bond?

பல நாளும் பக்கத்தார் ஆயினும், நெஞ்சில்
சில நாளும் ஒட்டாரோடு ஒட்டார்; பல நாளும்
நீத்தார் என, கைவிடல் உண்டோ-தம் நெஞ்சத்து
யாத்தாரோடு யாத்த தொடர்பு.

Some people might be living with us for a long time, but they will never be close to our heart. When we have friends with whom our bond is strong, will the bond ever unravel even if they live away from us for a long time? No. Friendship depends not on distance but on understanding.

கைவிடல் – give up / forgo
நெஞ்சத்து யாத்தார் -those with whom our hearts are bound
யாத்த – bonded / tied

Naaladiyaar – 219

Enmity is better than friendship of the fickle;
death is better than incurable sickness;
killing is better than cruel ridicule;
criticism is better than false praise.

தெளிவு இலார் நட்பின் பகை நன்று; சாதல்
விளியா அரு நோயின் நன்றால்; அளிய
இகழ்தலின் கோறல் இனிதே; மற்று இல்ல
புகழ்தலின் வைதலே நன்று.

This poem in Naaladiyaar (anthology of poems by Jain monks, dated around 2nd Century CE) is under the chapter “Choosing friends”. Enmity of the fickle minded person is better than their friendship. The next three lines imply why it is so, without explicitly stating it. My interpretation is as follows. A fickle minded friendship is like an incurable sickness. Death is preferable to that. A friend who ridicules heartlessly is worse than one who kills you. A friend who heaps false praise is worse than one who criticises.

Naaladiyaar – 161

Oh ruler of hills where waterfalls roar!
Thinking ‘he’ll bear it’, one shouldn’t upset
flawless men among us; once they’re upset,
it’s hard for anyone to set it right.

‘பொறுப்பர்’ என்று எண்ணி, புரை தீர்ந்தார் மாட்டும்
வெறுப்பன செய்யாமை வேண்டும்; வெறுத்தபின்,-
ஆர்க்கும் அருவி அணி மலை நல் நாட!-
பேர்க்குதல் யார்க்கும் அரிது.

This poem is under the chapter பெரியாரைப் பிழையாமை – ‘Not finding fault with Great men’. Just because a genius / great man bears with it, people shouldn’t upset him by their actions. Once a great man is upset, it is difficult for any one to clear the harm caused by it. Upsetting great men will cause much grief to the country. So the ruler and people should be considerate and not hurt them.

Naaladiyaar – 140

Of all available knowledge, if one learns
just worldly books and not books of wisdom-
it makes meaningless noise but is of no use
in removing confusion.

அலகுசால் கற்பின் அறிவுநூல் கல்லா(து)
உலகநூ லோதுவ தெல்லாங் – கலகல
கூஉந் துணையல்லாற் கொண்டு தடுமாற்றம்
போஒந் துணையறிவா ரில்.

This Naaladiyaar poem talks about learning for wisdom and not just for worldly purposes. Those worldly books will make much noise but are of no use in setting one on the path of righteousness and removing confusion. Since Naaladiyaar is an anthology by Jain monks after the Sangam period, it is tempting to think that they were dissing the earthliness of the previous era.

அலகு – limit, சால் – full. This phrase has been treated either as boundless knowledge or limited knowledge and the previous commentaries are all over the place. I have decided to go with ‘boundless’ – hence used ‘all’.

Naaladiyar – 356

Tribes remember abundance of the hills;
farmers remember riches of fertile fields;
Wise men remember kindness shown to them;
Base men remember scorn heaped on them.

மலைநலம் உள்ளும் குறவன்; பயந்த
விளைநிலம் உள்ளும் உழவன்; சிறந்தொருவர்
செய்தநன் றுள்ளுவர் சான்றோர் : கயந்தன்னை
வைததை உள்ளி விடும்.

The hill tribes remember the bounty provided by the hills and praise them. Farmers remember the riches provided by fertile fields and praise them. Similarly Wise men always remember the kindness shown to them and praise their benefactors. Lowly men only remember the scorn heaped on them and will try to take vengeance.

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